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  4. ST can exhaust to vacuum GT limited to atmospheric pressure at exhaust
  5. Last week
  6. Tig manual feed rod, mig continues feed filler wire. Tig operates at higher temperature, mig comparatively low temp. Variety of materials with steel and heavy casting can be weld by tig, Sheet metal mild steel crca can be weld.
  7. we have two Peugeot 406 2.2i 160hp both on lpg. Both cars use omvl dream xxi LPG instalation, and uses about 1-1.5 liter more than gasoline. also has about 20% less power and throttle response. But it's much cheaper than any diesel with similar perfomance and car size. No diesel sedan with 1500kg with 160hp can use under 6-7 liters per 100km, while our car uses 8.5-11 L/100km, depeding on driving style and LPG quallity After removing engine head after 220.000km it's visible more carbon buildup on top of the piston, but non of carbon is seen on valves, beacuse first 3km or so car drives on gasoline. If you use LPG instal catch can, or once a week drive 20-30km on gasoline to clean the engine. Our cars doesn't have valve saver fluid witch lubircate them, and never had problem with burining them. Japanese cars had lot of problems with LPG.
  8. Casting is done at melting temp. Forging is done at crystalline temp. Casting grain structure remains same. Forging grain structure is improved.
  9. Coz the discharge pipe is inovlute structure of centre circle in which fan is mounted
  10. In true stress..strain curve, the curve will go upward till the fracrure point after yielding due to dividing the load on the instantaneous area at every point.
  11. In order to tackle bottom pressure through expansion from bottom to top to resist soil erosion.
  12. CC stands for cubic capacity...actually it is the capacity to piston displacement from tdc to bdc. Which means higher cc will give higher power output and torque but speed is independent of cc it is related to gears ratio....
  13. Simply while producing some product the check over defect to ensure quality Is called quality control. Were as in service of product its quality which assures its reliability to work properly is called quality assurance
  14. Brazing is used were strength is required lower than welding but better than soldering. It is done at higher temperature and uses more amount of filler material as compare to soldering, in brazing variety of fillers can be used. Soldering is just to hold the two together and typically used in electrical components.
  15. It is a mechanical comparator which uses gear ratio to increase the speed at lower rpm so that vehicle can cruise at decent speed at low engine rpm and low noise and vibration.
  16. Diesel engines are more efficient than petrol engines coz they have higher compression ratio which heats the inlet air and obtain higher efficiency from air fuel mixture to same quantity of air fuel mixture in petrol engine.
  17. Sound depends on engine tunning, how much of torque and speed is obtained varies sound over it the exhaust nozzle also plays great role. As per my knowledge
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  19. While there is no definitive answer to this question, in my opinion, few of the desirable characteristics an engineer should possess are - 1. Practical (hands-on) and analytical approach 2. Mastery on engineering fundamentals learnt in engineering schools and colleges 3. Mastery on engineering drawing (fundamentals, regardless of a particular discipline) The list can be exhaustive. These are some points which came to my mind on an impromptu level. The crux is to never deter from the basic engineering principles.
  20. Coz they have to operate in muddy trains and bring them back will need extension which has to be taken care as its engine is front mounted
  21. It is the load carrying capacity at which bearings can operate at 10^6 revolution life
  22. Vertical compression member is called as column But all compression member is called as structure All column are structure but viseversa is not possible
  23. Typically, the cooling system (external to the engine) is sized for a worst-case set of conditions (maximum engine heat rejection, highest ambient temperature, etc.). When conditions are off-design, the cooling capacity must be modulated to maintain the internal components at acceptable temperatures. The thermostat works in concert with variable fan speed or shutters over the radiator opening to achieve the correct amount of cooling at a given operating condition.
  24. Hugh reduction ratio of rotation which allows for greater torque transfer
  25. Without getting your hand dirty,one can not learn engineering concepts. For example how does a car clutch work? All know s layman definition.but the real crux ,an engineer knows only when he Assemblying and dismantling the clutch All engineering concepts will be understood completely ,when you have exposure to industries.
  26. The compressor is used to get a fluid pressor hight the pump is used to move a fluid from a place to another
  27. A pipe is usually defined by its internal diameter unlike a tube that is defined by its external diameter. Both the pipe and tube are available in different wall thicknesses. A pipe however is most commonly available in only two thicknesses defined by schedule 40 and schedule 80. A pipe's primary purpose is to facilitate fluid flow. The pipe diameter and thickness is selected considering the following factors. The amount of fluid flow it needs to allow, the available pressure capacity of the fluid pump and the required pressure differential to get the fluid from point A to point B over some distance and altitude. A schedule 80 pipe is thicker and is used when the fluid pressure is higher. A larger diameter is used when the flow is higher and the available source pressure is limited. Sometimes, a schedule 80 pipe may be unable to withstand the higher pressure, so a larger diameter pipe may be chosen to reduce the pressure differential. Conversely, a relatively lower pressure differential would mean that a schedule 40 pipe is used. Pipes are available in many materials such as PVC, Polypropelene, Steel (usually galvanized for corrosion resistance) and aluminum (usually annodized for corrosion resistance). A tube is traditonally used for non-fluid flow applications usually in some type of structural or non-structural fabrication. Although, a round tube is sometimes used to facilitate flow. A tube is usually made out of steel and aliminum. It is also available in other shapes such as a square or a rectangular tube.
  28. Although my expertise is not Aeronautics, I will attempt to answer using just common engineering sense. A helicopter uses primarily vertical propulsion to gain elevation using the propeller placed above the helicopter over a large area to cover more ground. The long blades of the propeller allow the helicopter to propel the weight upwards at a relatively lower pressure differential. A helicopter moves at a much slower speed compared to an airplane. It is also limited to relatively lower altitude. An aeroplane uses lateral propulsion. The two relatively smaller turbines are located on each side of the plane. They move air at a much higher velocity at a much higher RPM. The air plane uses the momentum and the nose angle of the plane to aid its lift off. It also uses its long wings and its aerodynamic shape of the fuselage to have the least amount of resistance from air and maximize its glide to stay in air. The airplane can move at much higher speeds and achieve a much higher altitude using its lateral propulsion. The airplane is unable to achieve a vertical lift off like a helicopter.
  29. Simply put, pumps are used when you require a higher flow at a low pressure differential. An excellent application example for this is an inflatable park where the pressure differential is only a few PSI. A compressor is used when the target pressure differential is high, usually about 50 PSI to 180 PSI depending on the type of compressor used. The target flow rates are comparable to a pump but are generally on the lower side for any given size. A compressor is usually used in industrial applications to power pnuematic tools and equipment.
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